Snakes in Canada

Of the several snake species found in Canada, four are venomous, mostly preferring warmer climates. One of the deadliest snakes here, the western rattlesnake has a limited range, confined to the southern portions of British Columbia, southwestern parts of Saskatchewan, and southeastern Alberta. The timber rattlesnake ceased to exist here, was designated as endangered, and extirpated by  the COSEWIC.

In the list of non-venomous snakes, the night often mistaken for the rattlesnake in appearance is the one with rear fangs. However, its venom isn’t harmful to humans, and the snake rarely occurs in Canada, dwelling in southern British Columbia.

Canada’s largest species is the gray rat snake, measuring 42-72 inches. In contrast, the smallest snake is the red-bellied, growing to not more than 15 inches.

Among the snakes not found in Canada at all, the corn snake is one of them, finding it challenging to thrive in cold weather.

Snakes in Canada
GroupsVenomous SnakeNon-venomous Snake
RattlesnakesWestern Rattlesnake
Timber Rattlesnake
Prairie Rattlesnake
Massasauga Rattlesnake
Northern Pacific Rattlesnake
Hognose Snakes Eastern Hognose Snake
Western Hognose Snake  
Garter Snakes Butler’s Garter Snake
Common Garter Snake
Northwestern Garter Snake
Plains Garter Snake
Valley Garter Snake
Western Terrestrial Garter Snake
Red-sided Garter Snake
Puget Sound Garter Snake
Maritime Garter Snake
Eastern Ribbon Snake
KingsnakesEastern Milksnake
PantherophisEastern Fox Snake
Black Rat Snake
Gray Rat Snake
ReginaQueen Snake
HypsiglenaNight Snake
StoreriaRed-bellied Snake
DeKay’s Brownsnake
Northern Brown Snake
NerodiaNorthern Water Snake
Lake Erie Watersnake
ContiaSharp-tailed Snake
PituophisGopher Snake
Great Basin Gopher Snake
OpheodrysSmooth Green Snake
DiadophisNorthern Ringneck Snake
ColuberEastern Racer
Western Yellow-bellied Racer
Blue Racer
CharinaRubber Boa

Snakes by Colors and Patterns

Black Snakes: Black Rate Snake

Brown Snakes: DeKay’s Brownsnake, Northern Brown Snake, Red-bellied Snake, Eastern Ribbon Snake

Quick Information

Biggest Snake: Gray Ratsnake

Smallest Snake: Red-bellied Snake

Deadliest Snakes: Western Rattlesnake, Massasauga Rattlesnake

Snakes in Canada (by Region)